Ett hårt liv väntar dem som utvisas till Afghanistan

Article by: MINNA WALLÉN-WIDUNG for Allas.se

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En som alltför väl känner till hur det är att leva i Afghanistan som återvändare, är Abdul Ghafoor. År 2013 deporterades han tillbaka till Kabul från Norge, där han fått avslag på sin asylansökan. Abdul Ghafoor har varit aktivist sedan tonåren och efter att han kommit tillbaka började han rapportera om de deporterades utsatta situation via sin blogg. 2014 grundade han organisationen Afghanistan Migrants Advice & Support Org, AMASO.

– Vårt främsta mål är att ge de deporterade rådgivning eftersom de flesta knappt vet någonting om Afghanistan. Det är väldigt svårt för dem att integreras här, så vi ger dem information om boende, hälsovård, utbildning, jurister och stödgrupper, säger han.

Någon liknande hjälp från de afghanska myndigheterna finns inte att få, berättar Abdul Ghafoor.

– Det går inte en vecka utan en självmordsattack. Det är väldigt negativt för afghanerna, och det är värst för de deporterade eftersom de återvänder efter så många år. Jag har träffat återvändande som inte vågar lämna sitt boende, barn som gråter i veckor för att de är rädda för att gå ut, säger Abdul Ghafoor.

Vissa dras in i drogberoende

Utan pengar i ett osäkert land är det svårt att hitta en meningsfull vardag. Abdul Ghafoor säger att vissa av de deporterade hamnar ”under bron”.

– Det finns en väldigt känd bro här i Kabul där de drogberoende bor. Många som kommer tillbaka är i dåligt skick, saknar pengar och känner ingen här. Därför hamnar många i ett drogberoende, bara för att komma undan sina problem.

En del av de utvisade har inte längre någon familj kvar i livet. Andra drar sig in i det sista för att kontakta dem, till och med efter att de landat i Kabul. Rädslan för hur deras familj ska reagera är stor, eftersom de har betalat stora summor pengar för att kunna skicka iväg sina barn till Europa. Att bli deporterad tillbaka innebär ett stort stigma, enligt Abdul Ghafoor.

– När familjerna skickar sina barn till Europa förväntar de sig att de ska få uppehållstillstånd och kunna skicka hem pengar. När det inte blir så kommer de att undra varför – vad har du gjort för fel? Har du dödat någon? Har du tagit droger? Varför fick din kusin uppehållstillstånd men inte du? Det är väldigt vanligt. Majoriteten av de här killarnas familjer har lånat pengar från släktingar och sålt av mark för att kunna skicka sin son till Europa och det blir en sådan press som de inte kan hantera.

Att försöka förklara hur den svenska migrationslagstiftningen fungerar är sällan ett alternativ, enligt Abdul Ghafoor. Många kommer från illitterata familjer på landsbygden, och att återvända från Europa ses som ett personligt misslyckande.

– 17 000 afghaner har lämnat landet under årets första nio månader. Majoriteten av de deporterade vill lämna landet, de ser inga möjligheter att överleva i Afghanistan, säger Abdul Ghafoor som de senaste åren har träffat hundratals återvändande.

I vissa fall kan de täcka sjukvårdskostnaderna med hjälp av privata donationer, men det är inte alla som får hjälp.

Också Abdul Ghafoor och hans organisation bistår de deporterade med vård i den mån det är möjligt.

Anser att utvisningarna ska stoppas

Abdul Ghafoor träffar regelbundet representanter för olika internationella organisationer, myndigheter, forskare och journalister för att prata om de deporterades utsatta situation. Han anser att europeiska länder, som Sverige, bör stoppa alla utvisningar till Afghanistan.

– Problemet är att de flesta länder har skygglappar på. De vägrar inse att de riskerar de här människornas liv. Många hamnar i eländiga situationer, som i den iranska militären, IS eller talibanerna. De här länderna kan inte säga att det inte är deras ansvar, för skickar du en person till ett land där de inte har någon framtid är risken stor att de rekryteras av någon av de här rörelserna.

Full article here: https://www.allas.se/samhalle/ett-hart-liv-vantar-dem-som-utvisas-till-afghanistan/146910

Afghanistan: Fact-Finding Mission to Kabul in April 2019 – Finnish Immigration Service

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A Finnish fact finding mission was in Kabul few months ago to find out about the situation of deportees/returnees after their return to Afghanistan. The mission interviewed several stakeholders in the field of migration, mental health and minority rights. AMASO had also a meeting with the mission and provided with first hand and up to date information about the situation of those deported, the kind of problems they face post deportation to Afghanistan, the situation of minorities and the overall deteriorating security situation in the country.

The report indicates that the security situation in Afghanistan has deteriorated and that there is very limited services available for those deported to Afghanistan. Here is few of our comments taken from the report;

  1. According to several sources, security is indeed the biggest concern in Afghanistan for returnees and civilians in general.
  2. The overall security situation has been deteriorating since 2013-2014. People have grown tired of the deteriorating security, and in the last years large numbers of Afghans have left the country for Iran, Turkey, and Europe.
  3. There are hardly any places available to rent for people living on their own. To rent a place in Afghanistan, people need family and other connections that the landlords will trust. Landlords are not eager to rent places to people they do not know because there have been, for example, cases where the Taliban has been firing rockets from rented places in Kabul. People need friends and a network to find some place to go to. Afghanistan is all about many kinds of networks, mostly based on relatives and extended family ties.
  4. Another source says that skills acquired in Europe, for example in restaurants or car wash services and such, are not useful in Afghanistan. In Afghanistan everything is about referrals, and this applies even for the educated people
  5. People may also be suspected of committing a crime while they were abroad because they were deported.
  6. Return is a lengthy process that varies for different groups. It is easier for those who were in Afghanistan before and who are used to the conditions. It is more difficult for newcomers, families, women heads of household, and also for those returnees who left from the provinces but who return to Kabul
  7. The Afghan police are not able to deal with these cases because the police are busy tackling the Taliban and ISIS terrorism. The police are not able and not interested in dealing with personal case
  8. According to AMASO, West Kabul, inhabited by Hazaras, used to be the safest area in Kabul, but after ISIS gained ground in 2016-18 the most dangerous attacks have occurred in the west targeting Shias and Hazaras
  9. An NGO representative noted that in Dashti Barchi, people have started to be afraid of new attacks against schools, hospitals, mosques and gatherings.

Full report can be accessed in the link below here: https://migri.fi/documents/5202425/5914056/Afghanistan_FFM_Returnees_MIG-1914851.pdf/ebbe969e-aea8-768d-c10b-37fad4b2bbd2/Afghanistan_FFM_Returnees_MIG-1914851.pdf

Parts of Director of AMASO’S interview with DW

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“The situation in Afghanistan today is much worse than it was a few years ago — mostly because of the security situation in the country,” Abdul Ghafoor, who heads the Kabul-based Afghanistan Migrants Advice and Support Organization (AMASO), told DW. “You may have noticed that the number of attacks that have been carried out by Taliban all around Afghanistan, especially in Kabul, is mind-blowing.” Just a week ago, he said, Austria and Sweden even canceled deportation flights at the last minute because of the danger.

Ghafoor said many people who are deported to Afghanistan try to leave the country as quickly as possible. “Just recently, I talked to four or five who were deported from Germany,” he said. “They are now in Greece, though in really bad circumstances.”

Afghan officials have promised their EU counterparts that the country is prepared to assimilate its returned citizens. In return, Afghanistan receives development aid. Ghafoor said the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) used to put up Afghans in hotel rooms for two weeks after their return to their home country. But, now, they merely receive the equivalent of about €150 ($167). And Afghanistan’s precarious security situation can mean that hostels are pricey. So repatriated Afghans must rely on relatives, friends or acquaintances to put them up. They can apply for up to €700 in funding from the German government to help them settle back in — though, Ghafoor said, the application process entails endless paperwork.

Ghafoor, who himself was deported from Norway in 2013, said the security situation had deteriorated considerably in recent years. That, he said, made deporting Afghans from Germany irresponsible. Though the Taliban has engaged in peace talks with the government of Afghanistan, the group is “still carrying out suicide attacks killing dozens of civilians,” he said. The Islamic State (IS) group is “even more dangerous and brutal than the Taliban; so the Taliban may only pose a secondary threat,” he added.

Full article here: Afghans deported from Germany face violence, others perils

AMASO and Rights Now Sweden educational project partnership

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We are glad to announce the start of a new project with the assistance of Rights Now Sweden for a small short term project helping a limited number of returnees for educational purposes. Through the project, we will help returnees for a short period of time, 6 months or longer if possible with learning English Language and Computer programs.
 
We are hoping this will help some of the returnees find a way out of the trauma they have been through after deportation. We have started identifying returnees before we formally start the project in June, priority will be given to returnees from Sweden.
 
We are also planning to extend our program and include as many returnees possible in the near future. We also call on other organizations and private donors to join this cause and help one returnee each with the project. We will share further detail for this part of the post if we receive requests for support.

Director of AMASO’s views reflected on Netherlands based news website Groene

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But critics say the deal has pushed the Afghan government down the throat. “The EU blackmailed the Afghan government at the time,” says Abdul Ghafoor on the phone from Kabul. Ghafoor leads the Afghanistan Migrants Advice and Support Organization, a small NGO with the aim of offering refugees who return safe wherever possible. “The Commission said:” We will send you back the refugees and give you money for reception or we will use that money in Europe, choose. “But Afghanistan is at least ninety percent of its state revenue dependent on foreign aid. Then of course you don’t really have a choice. “

“The Netherlands or the EU does not monitor evictions of asylum seekers who have exhausted all legal remedies,” says Laurence Verkooijen. “So we don’t know what happens to Afghan asylum seekers after they are deported. As soon as they arrive at the airport, they are on their own. ” Abdul Ghafoor needs even fewer words: ‘There is no monitoring whatsoever. Not from the EU, not from the Afghan government. “

According to Ghafoor, these kinds of stories cannot be underestimated. “Christians absolutely run the risk of being killed.” He points to the story of 27-year-old Farkhunda Malikzada, who was murdered in March 2015 because she was said to have burned the Quran. A group of fanatical Muslims kicked and beat her to death with sticks and stones, then tied her behind a car and dragged her through the streets of Kabul. “Even though the returnees don’t say anything about their conversion, it’s just a matter of time before everyone in Afghanistan knows where you are. Social media has also penetrated here. “

Another risk is the lack of a social network. “In Afghanistan, social networks are essential for survival,” said Ghafoor. This applies above all to the group of young Afghans who fled with their families to Iran or Pakistan and later made the journey to Europe alone. If these boys are sent back to Afghanistan, they will end up in a country they don’t know. Some cross the border to Iran again, but there is a threat of recruitment by the Iranian army. “There are certainly two known cases of Afghan young men being deported from Norway, fleeing from Afghanistan to Iran and recruited there by the Iranian regime to fight on the Assad side in Syria,” says Ghafoor. “One died, the other managed to escape. He now roams around in Turkey. “

It is not strange, both Schuster and Ghafoor believe, that especially the young men sent back – more than seventy percent according to estimates – are on their way to Europe in no time. They are once again crossing the mountains of Iran to Turkey, where they have to stay out of the hands of the Turkish police – last year alone Turkey would have sent back at least 15,000 Afghans. They take the land route via Bulgaria or the sea route to Greece and get stuck in the mud pools of Lesvos. Afghans were the largest group of asylum seekers who arrived in Greece last year.

Full article in Dutch can be found here: Article

From Europe to Afghanistan, experiences of child returnees

Samuel Halls conducted a research commissioned by Save the Children to monitor the situation of Afghan child returnees back to Afghanistan. There has hardly been any research on this topic and therefore the research has importance in collecting information about the situation of Afghan child returnees at the time of asylum, both with and without families.

The research was conducted last year and was welcomed in the academic circle and mentioned in many international media. AMASO has the privilege to be a part of the research and to help Samuel Hall with connecting with the returnees and providing a safe address for conducting the interviews. Recently we have been contacted by several individuals and organizations to share information about the situation of child returnees.

Therefore,  once again we are putting a link to the research paper so that it is available for those who are in search of information.

Full Link: From Europe to Afghanistan, Experiences of child returnees

 

Director of AMASO’s interview with Parisglobalist about the situation of Afghan returnees

 

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AFGHANS – EUROPE’S FORGOTTEN REFUGEES

ADVOCATING FOR AFGHANS

In 2014, due to the increasing number of Afghan returnees, the Afghanistan Migrants Advice and Support Organization (AMASO) was established. The organization documents the stories of Afghans who were forced to go back to Afghanistan and advocates for their right to stay in safety in Europe and Australia. The organization also provides support and counseling for recent returnees in Afghanistan. 

For Abdul Ghafoor, the organization’s director, Afghanistan is still a war-torn country fighting many insurgent groups (such as the Taliban, Hizb-e-Islami, ISIS). In fact, the security situation has deteriorated quickly. It is now far more dangerous in the country than during the NATO invasion in 2001. 

“More and more, provinces are falling into the hands of the Taliban and ISIS, and the government is losing ground,” he explains in an email. “The capital of Afghanistan, Kabul, has turned into one of the most dangerous provinces of Afghanistan, where people lose their lives on a daily and weekly basis. Minorities are at great risk after ISIS gained ground in the country. The recent attacks on the Shiite mosques in the west of Kabul are an indication of that.”

People fear dying in suicide attacks on a daily basis. The national economy is crumbling under the pressure of war and violence: Investors are not interested in a country where no one can live safely. Meanwhile, according to Ghafoor, regional powers still consider Afghanistan a battleground, with Russia and Iran becoming increasingly involved in the country’s affairs since the rise of ISIS. 

In addition to these common hardships, returnees face unique adversities back home. According to the current President of Afghanistan, Ashraf Ghani, Afghans who flee deserve no sympathy. (Of course, rampant corruption within his own government may have exacerbated the dire conditions that forced many Afghans to leave.) An agreement with the EU concluded in October 2016, which supports the deportation of Afghans, has not succeeded in convincing Afghans to remain in the country. A 2017 survey by the nonprofit Asia Foundation finds that 38.8 percent of Afghans would leave the country if they were given the opportunity. Many consider the government to be completely inept at providing security and stability for the general population. The President’s recent appointment of the infamous warlord Gul Agha Shirzai as Minister of Border and Tribal Affairs was seen as yet greater proof of the government’s disrespect for its own people. 

For Ghafoor, the European Union’s strategy of targeting Afghan refugees as a way to dissuade them from seeking asylum is yet another illustration of the Afghan government’s weakness and corruption. It is important to note, however, that not all countries conduct demographically balanced deportations. Germany, for example, deports mainly adults, while Sweden and Norway — traditionally welcoming countries — are increasingly accelerating the deportations of 18-year-olds and possible minors who are unable to pass the age assessment test. The situation is thus quite bleak as entire families face the risk of deportation.

Another problem posed by the deportations is the amount of Afghans who already live as refugees in Iran or Pakistan. In those bordering countries, the local populations have become increasingly hostile to their presence. These refugees, too, are being sent back to Afghanistan and are, according to Ghafoor, the most vulnerable group.

“With no network and no source of income, it is almost impossible to survive,” he argues. “As a result, the majority of those deported leave the country as soon as they can and return back to Iran, Turkey and further on.”

Afghans who are deported, in accordance with the EU’s agreement with Ghani’s government, are supposed to receive two weeks of accommodation and financial assistance through packages. But obtaining aid is difficult. 

“The packages need to be obtained through a very tricky process with a lot of document submissions,” Ghafoor says. “Some [returnees] get tired and even quit [receiving the packages] because it is a lot of paperwork, and without a network it is impossible to meet those requirements.” 

Many returnees do not have any family members remaining in Afghanistan and the provinces from which their families originally came can be hard to access due to ongoing fighting. Without access to these packages or any other kind of financial assistance, the returnees cannot afford to feed themselves or their families.

The returnees therefore stop being refugees and instead become internally displaced persons, with almost no prospect of employment. If the EU and the Afghan government think this is the way to inspire young Afghans to fight for their country against insurgent groups, Ghafoor firmly disagrees. 

“Hardly any returnees stay in the country, so I don’t think they can make any difference but [instead] turn into a burden,” he maintains.

For Ghafoor, the best way to combat this problem is to inform Europeans on a daily basis of the tragedies experienced by the Afghan people. Awareness-raising campaigns and a change of policy which includes Afghans in the EU relocation scheme could prove very useful and keep thousands of people from being deported back to Afghanistan. It is time for Europe to take its share of responsibility for the situation in Afghanistan and welcome the refugees of a war European powers helped to create. ♦

Full article can be found on the Parisglobalist website : http://www.parisglobalist.org/afghans-europes-forgotten-refugees/?fbclid=IwAR1PHNvHrAeM0DCRAVmd1nSxVS5OlZhyC7AYIu2SzvoflwrHgL7w0wuhQiw